dinoflagellate sulcus (Total 9750 Papers Found)

We used fMRI at 3 Tesla and improved spatial resolution (2 x 2 x 2 mm(3)) to investigate topographic organization in human frontal cortex using memory-guided response tasks performed at 8 or 12 peripheral locations arranged clockwise around a central fixation point. The tasks required the location of a peripheral target to be remembered for several seconds after which the subjects either made a saccade to the remembered location (memory-guided saccade task) or judged whether a test stimulus appe ...
www.nature.com/reviews/neuro In monkeys, the anterior bank of the intraparietal sulcus (AIP) is involved in visually guided hand movements that are relevant to grasping objects. By contrast, its caudal bank (CIP) responds to three-dimensional surface orientation. On the basis of these findings, it has been proposed that CIP conveys spatial information to AIP, affecting motor output. Now, Shikata et al. report that the equivalent areas in the human brain show a similar division of labour, and sug ...
Objective: This study investigates the combination of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or concentrated bone marrow aspirate (CBMA) with a biphasic collagen/glycosaminoglycan (GAG) osteochondral scaffold for the treatment of osteochondral defects in sheep. Design: Acute osteochondral defects were created in the medial femoral condyle (MFC) and the lateral trochlea sulcus (LTS) of 24 sheep (n = 6). Defects were left empty or filled with a 6 × 6-mm scaffold, either on its own or in combination with PRP ...
According to recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, spectators of a movie may share similar spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity. We aimed to extend these findings of intersubject correlation to temporally accurate single-trial magnetoencephalography (MEG). A silent 15-min black-and-white movie was shown to eight subjects twice. We adopted a spatial filtering model and estimated its parameter values by using multi-set canonical correlation analysis (M-CCA) so that the ...
PURPOSE To compare the results of sulcus implantation of acrylic and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) intraocular lens (IOL) in eyes with posterior capsule tear during phacoemulsification surgery. METHODS In all eyes a posterior capsule tear developed during phacoemulsification surgery and an IOL to the ciliary sulcus was implanted primarily. A total of 89 eyes of 88 patients received hydrophilic foldable acrylic IOL (acrylic group). A total of 72 eyes of 72 patients received PMMA IOL (PMMA gro ...
A variety of cell types exist in the temporal cortex providing high-level visual descriptions of bodies and their movements. We have investigated the sensitivity of such cells to different viewing conditions to determine the frame(s) of reference utilized in processing. The responses of the majority of cells in the upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus (areas TPO and PGa) found to be sensitive to static and dynamic information about the body were selective for one perspective view (e.g. rig ...
We report here for the first time that 5 red-tide dinoflagellates (Gymnodinium catenatum, G. impudicum, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Prorocentrum donghaiense, and P. triestinum) which had been previously thought to be exclusively autotrophic dinoflagellates are mixotrophic species. We investigated the feeding behaviors, the kinds of prey species that 11 mixotrophic red-tide dinoflagellates (Akashiwo sanguinea, Alexandrium tamarense, G. catenatum, G. impudicum, Heterocapsa triquetra, L. polyedrum, P. ...
People perceive ongoing activity in terms of discrete temporal events. Distinctive changes in the movement of objects or actors may contribute to the perception that one event has ended and another has begun. However, little is known about the quantitative contribution of movement information to the processing of events. This study investigated how movement features are related to the neural processing of events by performing functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants viewed simple ...
OBJECTIVE EEG source imaging provides important information regarding the underlying neural activity from noninvasive electrophysiological measurements. The aim of the present study was to evaluate source reconstruction techniques by means of the intracranial electrocorticograms (ECoGs) and functional MRI. METHODS Five source imaging algorithms, including the minimum norm least square (MNLS), LORETA with L(p)-norm (p equal to 1, 1.5 and 2), sLORETA, the minimum L(p)-norm (p equal to 1 and 1.5; ...
The red-tide dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polygramma (GenBank accession number = AJ833631), previously known as an exclusively autotrophic dinoflagellate, has been found to be a mixotrophic species. We investigated feeding mechanisms, types of prey species, and the effects of prey concentration on the growth and ingestion rates of G. polygramma when feeding on an unidentified cryptophyte species (equivalent spherical diameter, ESD = 5.6 μm). We also calculated grazing coefficients by combining fiel ...
Dental implantology is a rapidly advancing area of dentistry providing a number of alternative treatment possibilities for patients with partially or fully edentulous mouths. The following article is the first in a series of three dealing with various aspects of dental implantology, with a particular emphasis on those areas related to field of periodontology. In this paper we shall consider the biological basis of dental implants, different implant systems, and the peri-implant sulcus. Forthcomi ...
AIM The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium sulphate on various osseous defects when used in conjunction with apicectomy. METHODOLOGY Mandibular third and fourth premolars of 11 beagle dogs were used. After root-canal treatment and apicectomy, three types of osseous defects were prepared on both sides of the mandible as follows: type 1, osseous defect communicating with the gingival sulcus: type 2, large osseous defect including two roots; type 3, 'through and throug ...
Quantitative measurements of gingival crevicular fluid are used to examine gingival inflammation. In order to simplify such measurements we evaluated for the first time testing papers with chemically bound pH indicators. The height of the fluid can be seen instantly as a color change. Calibration curves showed a rise in linear proportional increments in the magnitude of 1 mm per 0.1 microliters. To evaluate this method, we made a comparative study using 26 patients and Periotron ratings. Both me ...
Previous studies have demonstrated that the neural basis of deception involves a network of regions including the medial frontal cortex (MFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), etc. However, to test the actual activity of the brain in the act of deceptive practice itself, existing studies have mainly adopted paradigms of passive deception, where participants are told to lie in certain conditions, and have focused on intra-brain mechanisms in single participants. In ...
One way to improve our understanding of cortical anatomy is to visualize the three-dimensional (3D) shape of the cerebral sulci which is normally hidden. Here, we reconstructed the 3D morphology of the central sulcus (CS) in 17 normal subjects, using conventional magnetic resonance images and dedicated software. We found that the 3D morphology was remarkably consistent in all central sulci. Our analyses revealed three different regions (upper, middle and lower), which were easily identifiable by ...
PURPOSE The present study was performed to evaluate the 5-year status of immediately placed implants subjected to maxillary sinus elevation without grafting. MATERIALS AND METHODS Implants were placed in 2004 and 2005. A minimum of 3 mm of residual bone height (RBH) was required. All implants were placed with a sinus elevation performed through a lateral approach by the trap-door, open-window method without placement of any grafting material. Regular follow-up included oral hygiene instruction ...
Fifty normal noninfarct patients and 12 cases with infarcts of the cerebrum were examined with routine magnetic resonance imaging and echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging. The diffusion-weighted three-dimensional images were reconstructed with volume-rendering processing on workstation. Precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus, precentral sulcus, central sulcus, postcentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus and superior frontal sulcus were best shown of ...
PURPOSE To assess the effect of optic capture on the achieved refractive outcome after complicated cataract surgery with a sulcus-fixated intraocular lens (IOL). SETTING Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, United Kingdom. DESIGN Single-unit, single-surgeon retrospective case-note review. METHODS The case notes were reviewed of patients who had vitrectomy for retained lens matter after phacoemulsification or phacoemulsification with posterior capsule rupture and sulcus fixation of a poste ...
Direct electrical cortical stimulation is often considered the “gold standard” to identify motor or other eloquent cortices during surgical procedures. However, this method sometimes fails or is insufficient by itself, and the use of other methods can be very helpful in reducing post-operative morbidity. We report the case of a 28-yearold patient who was considered for surgical resection of epileptic focus due to intractable seizure. During surgery both direct electrical stimulation and cort ...
AIM To systematically scrutinise the scientific literature to evaluate the accuracy of computer-guided implant placement for single missing teeth, as well as to analyse the eventual clinical advantages and treatment outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS The electronic and manual literature search of clinical studies published from January 2002 up to November 2015 was carried out using specified indexing terms. Outcomes were accuracy; implant and prosthetic failures; biological and mechanical complica ...
Under real-life adverse listening conditions, the interdependence of the brain's analysis of language structure (syntax) and its analysis of the acoustic signal is unclear. In two fMRI experiments, we first tested the functional neural organization when listening to increasingly complex syntax in fMRI. We then tested parametric combinations of syntactic complexity (argument scrambling in three degrees) with speech signal degradation (noise-band vocoding in three different numbers of bands), to s ...
To define the cortical areas that subserve spatial working memory in a nonhuman primate, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with [(15)O]H(2)O and positron emission tomography while monkeys performed a visually guided saccade (VGS) task and an oculomotor delayed-response (ODR) task. Both Statistical Parametric Mapping and regions of interest-based analyses revealed an increase of rCBF in the area surrounding the principal sulcus (PS), the superior convexity, the anterior bank of the ...
PURPOSE To determine the haptic position of ab externo transsclerally fixated posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). SETTING Mansoura Ophthalmic Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. METHODS Ultrasound biomicroscopy was used to determine the haptic position in relation to the ciliary sulcus, iris, and ciliary body in 20 patients with transsclerally fixated PC IOLs. The patients ranged in age from 10 to 65 years. RESULTS All IOL haptics wer ...
The earlier Middle Pleistocene human partial cranium from Hulu Cave, Tangshan, Nanjing (Hulu 1) exhibits an ectocranial lesion which covers most of the anterior neurocranium, largely between the temporal lines and extending from the supratoral sulcus to the anterior parietal bone. The endocranial surfaces and the remainder of the cranium (upper facial skeleton, lateral frontal bone, posterior parietal bones, and mid-occipital bone) are normal. The healed lesion exhibits both resorption and the l ...
The accurate determination of skeletal handedness is a critical requirement in physical anthropology and forensic science. To differentiate handedness, discriminant function analysis is applied using the parameters of right and left intertubercular sulci. A total of 200 matched unpaired adult humeri (100 right and 100 left), collected from the Department of Anatomy, were used to measure four parameters of the intertubercular sulcus namely, width (X1), depth (X2), angle of medial wall (X3) and an ...
One of the fundamental goals of neuroscience is to understand how perception arises from the activity of neurons in the brain. Stereopsis is a type of three-dimensional (3D) perception that relies on two slightly different projections of the world onto the retinas of the two eyes, i.e., binocular disparity. Neurons selective for curved surfaces defined by binocular disparity may contribute to the perception of an object's 3D structure. Such neurons have been observed in both the anterior lower b ...
A randomized clinical trial assessed the effect of a group-based behavior modification intervention on oral hygiene skills, adherence and clinical outcomes for older periodontal patients. Subjects (n = 107) were aged 50-70 yr with moderate periodontal disease. They were randomly assigned to usual care or intervention. Intervention consisted of 5 weekly, 90-min sessions that included skill training, self-monitoring, weekly feedback about bleeding points and group support focused on long-term habi ...
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a recurrent genetic mutation that is highly penetrant for psychosis. Behavioral research suggests that 22q11DS patients exhibit a characteristic neurocognitive phenotype that includes differential impairment in spatial working memory (WM). Notably, spatial WM has also been proposed as an endophenotype for idiopathic psychotic disorder, yet little is known about the neurobiological substrates of WM in 22q11DS. In order to investigate the neural systems engag ...
We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the ability to cope in atypical or novel situations using tools. We hypothesized that two cognitive components support this ability: adaptive coordination (for adapting to situational demands) and cognitive inhibition (for inhibiting the incongruent actions afforded by tools). We had subjects choose novel tools for a given task or choose among familiar tools in an atypical situation, during which we examined cortical activation in their brains usi ...
Butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl blue) tissue adhesive was used to secure orbital floor implants in the correction of superior sulcus deformities and blow-out fracture repairs and in one case of autogenous orbital roof bone plate. We have found this tissue adhesive to be a valuable substitute for wiring of orbital implants and have not seen general or local toxicity to the material. ...
1. Previous experiments have shown that punctate chemical lesions within the middle temporal area (MT) of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) produce deficits in the initiation and maintenance of pursuit eye movements (10, 34). The present experiments were designed to test the effect of such chemical lesions in an area within the STS to which MT projects, the medial superior temporal area (MST). 2. We injected ibotenic acid into localized regions of MST, and we observed two deficits in pursuit ey ...
The posterior insula, central sulcus, and inferior parietal lobule including the intraparietal sulcus have been considered the vestibular cortex based on functional brain mapping in humans as well as experiments in lower primates. The same regions receive optokinetic, visual, and proprioceptive projections. We examined the cortical and subcortical projection of vestibular activity with visual and proprioceptive input eliminated during caloric stimulation (CS), using functional magnetic resonance ...
The topographical distribution of the cortical afferent connections of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in adult cats was studied by using the retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase technique. Small single injections of the enzyme were made in different locations of the PFC, and the areal location and density of the subsequent neuronal labeling in neocortex and allocortex were evaluated in each case. The comparison of the results obtained in the various cases revealed that four prefron ...
The main characteristic ofperiodontal disease is chronic inflammation that leads to progressive destruction of the connective tissues and bone with subsequent tooth mobility and finally tooth loss. Traditionally, the pathogenesis of periodontitis was based on the infection caused by bacteria that colonize tooth surface and gingival sulcus. Accumulated evidence show that host response factors such as inflammatory reaction and activation of the innate immune system are critical to the pathogenesis ...
The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigates the neural substrates of relative pitch. Musicians and nonmusicians performed 2 same/different discrimination tasks (simple and transposed melody) that differed in whether they required precise encoding and comparison of relative pitch structure, along with 2 control tasks (rhythm and phoneme). The transposed melody task involved a musical transposition of 4 semitones between the target and comparison patterns, requiring listen ...
With the aid of the techniques of tracing axonal pathways by anterograde fiber degeneration, and by anterograde (autoradiography) and retrograde (HRP-histochemistry) axoplasmic transport, it could be shown that area 17 projects in a topographically and visuotopically organized manner onto the temporal visual area MT. The fibers of this association system originate from pyramidal cells in layer IIIc, and from the solitary cells of Meynert; they terminate in layers IV and III of area MT. A corresp ...
AIM To describe a surgical technique for sulcus fixation of a foldable single-piece acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) through a 3.0 mm clear cornea incision. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between 2003 and 2004, this technique was used in 10 eyes at Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital. Seven eyes were aphakic secondary to a capsule defect during phacoemulsification, one eye had a perforating injury with lens destruction, and two eyes were aphakic after congenital cataract extraction in childhood. In all ...
INTRODUCTION Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are the first cause of surgery in paediatric epilepsy surgery. The pre-surgical assessment in FCD is often complex, since they are lesions that can be highly epileptogenic and at the same time can preserve neurological functioning and may not be displayed in magnetic resonance imaging. The success of the operation largely depends on the proper identification of the lesion and the possibility of performing a complete resection of the dysplastic tissue. ...
The authors evaluated the anatomical location of the central sulcus (CS) in 24 cerebral hemispheres (eight in which tumors were located centrally, 16 in controls) using: 1) classic anatomical landmarks seen on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (24 hemispheres); 2) functional MR imaging (24 hemispheres); and 3) intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping (eight hemispheres). On MR imaging the CS was identified with certainty in 79% of hemispheres (four of eight in patients, 15 of 16 in controls). ...
The mediodorsal nucleus of the rat thalamus has been divided into medial, central and lateral segments on the basis of its structure and axonal connections, and these segments have been shown by experiments using the autoradiographic method of demonstrating axonal connections to project to seven distinct cortical areas covering most of the frontal pole of the hemisphere. The position and cytoarchitectonic characteristics of these areas are described. The medial segment of the nucleus projects to ...
OBJECTIVE To evaluate an integrated battery of preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks developed to identify cortical areas associated with tactile, motor, language, and visual functions. METHODS Sensitivity of each task was determined by the probability that a targeted region was activated for both healthy volunteers (n = 63) and surgical patients with lesions in these critical areas (n = 125). Accuracy of each task was determined by the correspondence between the fMRI ...
Within the scope of three-dimensional brain imaging, we propose an interindividual fusion scheme to register functional activations according to anatomical cortical structures, the sulci. This paper is based on the assumption that an important part of functional intersubject variability is encoded in anatomical variability. The aim of this paper is therefore to propose a generic framework to register functional activations according to the relevant anatomical landmarks. Compared to "classical" i ...
This paper reports on 10 years of clinical experience with implant prosthodontic treatment of total edentulism. During this period, of the 735 implants that were inserted, only 19 were lost, a 97.4% success rate. The authors believe that evaluating the success of implant treatment requires examining the health of the peripilastrium with periodontologic methods. The indices the authors used for such an evaluation were plaque accumulation, crevicular fluid flow rate, and sulcus bleeding; crevicula ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ischemic strokes with motor deficits lead to widespread changes in neural activity and interregional coupling between primary and secondary motor areas. Compared with frontal circuits, the knowledge is still limited to what extent parietal cortices and their interactions with frontal motor areas undergo plastic changes and might contribute to residual motor functioning after stroke. METHODS Fifteen well-recovered patients were evaluated 3 months after stroke by means of ...
During a 9-year period we operated on 19 patients in whom the proximal tendon of the biceps brachii muscle had been disruptured. Various surgical techniques were employed, such as refixation at the processus coracoideus, tenodesis in the sulcus intertubercularis, keyhole operation, in combination with an intraarticular inspection, revision, or if necessary widening of a narrow passage ("defile"). Follow-up was possible in 15 patients for an average period of 3 years after the operation, in respe ...